This page tries to keep track of all contra dances, traditional square dances (but not Modern Western Square Dances), traditional waltz sessions and Scandinavian dances in Texas including dance camps and weekends along with other events in Texas which include contra dancing and these other forms. Because most of the information is gathered from web sites and the listings are not updated as frequently as the web sites, dancers should visit the web sites for up-to-date information. If you are aware of any dances, dance series or other events that should be included on this list, please e-mail me.
Note: No current schedule notes.
Athens - Lakeview Lodge: Dances at The Lakeview Lodge, 1801 Flat Creek Road from 5:00pm to 7:00pm. Contact Linda Mrosko at email@example.com - 903/451-5535. Web site: None.
Austin - Wednesday: The Austin Barn Dance is each Wednesday at the Hancock Recreation Center, 811 East 41st Street from 7:30pm - 9:45pm, $3 donation requested, no partners needed. A variety of callers provide direction and a pick-up "old time" string band provides the music. so if you want to learn how to play contra music (or the occassional waltz), please feel free to bring your instrument to play as much as you want, and also to dance. For more information, call Dale Rempert, (512) 453-4225, or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Web site: http://austinbarndancers.org/.
Austin - 3rd Saturday: The Austin Third Saturday Contra Dance is held at Balance Dance Studios, 4544 S Lamar Blvd, Bldg. 200, Austin, TX 78745, close to Loop 360 South and S Lamar Blvd and across the highway from Central Market South. In spite of what it says on the web, the studio is not located in the Westgate Shopping Center . It is on the other side of Hwy 290-W / 71-W across from the shopping center. Caution: if you use Google maps or MapQuest or rely on your GPS to get driving directions to 4544 S Lamar Blvd , you might overshoot the important right turn onto Westgate Blvd. *Shoe policy: We are responsible for any damage to the dance floor. No boots or high heels are allowed. Soft-soled dance shoes are recommended. If you have any dirt or grit on your shoes, you must clean them before entering the dance studio (mat provided)., Austin, TX. The dance begins at 7:30 pm with a walk-through of the basic moves, and continues until 11:00pm. Please note that this is a fragrance-free dance. Regular admission $9, AFTM members $8, Students $5. For more information call Chuck Roth at (512) 453-8936 or e-mail. Web site: http://taada.us/index.html.
Austin - Dance in the Park: The Dance in the Park is an annual event in late March at Zilker Hillside Theatre from 1:00pm to 5:00pm. Experience Contra dancing in the great outdoors. Dance to live music on one fantastic wood floor. Or, just sit, watch and listen to some great live music. Arrive early and have a picnic with your family and friends. Bring your own drinks, snacks and chairs or quilts. No partner needed - Contra is one of the most social dance forms known to mankind. No dance experience necessary - Our skillful callers will teach you all you need to know. Free admission - however a donation for the bands will be greatly appreciated. There is a $3 fee for parking. For more information, call Dale Rempert, (512) 453-4225, or e-mail email@example.com. Web site: http://austinbarndancers.org/.
Austin - Swing Syndicate Contra: On Thursday nights, about 200 swing dancers converge on the ballroom at the Fed (2312 San Gabriel St) for the Austin Swing Syndicate's weekly dance. The swing dancers have offered us the side room (the Georgian Tea Room) to do a two-hour contra dance (9:15-11:30 pm) on Thursday, March 26. Contra dancers can get in for $3/person instead of the usual $5. (Swing Syndicate members get in for $2.) Let's show all those swing dancers how much fun contra dancing is! Come early to find a parking place and an opportunity to attend the free intro swing class from 8:15 to 9:15! For more info, contact Marianne Letts at firstname.lastname@example.org. Web site: None.
Austin - Fire Ant Frolic is a dance weekend held in late October/early November. Register in advance. Web site: http://www.fireantfrolic.org/.
Austin - Special Dance: A special dance on a special night. See web site for details. Web site: http://taada.us.
Austin - Austin Pops Fiddle and Folk Week: A week of music classes in August with the opportunity with a little opportunity to dance during the evening and a chance to attend the evening contra dances in Austin. Web site: http://austinpops.org/.
Austin - University of Texas: UT Austin Contra and Folk Dancing will host a dance this night including contras and dances from the Balkans and Scandinavia. No experience or partner is needed! Everyone is welcome, invite your friends! We'll be there from 6pm til 8pm on Tuesday January 25. Location: Quadrangle Room (3.304) at the UT Austin's Texas Union Building. Web site: http://deanofstudents.utexas.edu/sald/studentorgs/vieworgs.php?org=4511 or http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=126996905831.
Austin - Farmers' Market: Come join us at a dance in the morning at Austin's downtown Farmer's Market (exact location to be specified later) (but near 400 W. Guadalupe, Republic Square Park - editor) from 10am til 11:30am so we can show people how much fun we have, and hopefully get some people from the crowd to join us right there so they can try it too. Contact: email@example.com. Web site: None.
Austin - Squares - Farmers' Market: Square dance from 1 - 3pm at the Hope Farmers Market East Austin at E. 5th & Comal. Dance up a storm and buy veggies. Web site: http://hopefarmersmarket.org.
Austin - Contra Flash Mob: Various events at various sites. Web site: None.
Austin - Squares - Pine Street Station: Dance at 1101 E 5th St, E 5th St & Waller, Austin TX, 78702. 7pm. $5 for admission. No experience or partner needed, all dances will be taught. Email AFTMTexas@gmail.com for more info. Web site: http://aftm.us/.
Austin - Squares: Old time square dance at Carpenter's Hall, 400 Josephine Street, Austin, TX from 7:30pm to 11:30pm. No experience necessary. No partner needed. Admission: $5. Web site: http://aftm.us/.
Austin - Waltz: Sessions on various dates beginning at 2pm at 10240 Pinehurst Dr, in Onion Creek. Web site: http://www.taada.us/waltzes.html.
Austin - Mini Dance Weekend: Friday: English Country Dancing at the First Cumberland Presbyterian Church, 6800 Woodrow Avenue; Saturday Contra Dancing (advanced in the afternoon; contra for all in the evening) at Waller Creek School, 710 E 41st Street. Please come fragrance-free. Web site: http://www.taada.us/.
Austin - Squares - Austin Beer Garden Brewing Company: Mini-square dance from 3-4pm, come on out and check out the beer and dance a square or 2. Location: 1305 W. Oltorf, Austin, Texas 78704. Web site: http://theabgb.com/.
Austin - Squares - Monofonus Press - Museum of Human Achievement: Dance at the Museum of Human Achievement put on by Monofonus press for a 'Big Zine' release. 7pm with dance from 8-11pm(ish). Free! 3600 Lyons Road 78702. So bring your instrument and play a little and dance a lot. Web site: http://monofonuspress.com/.
Austin - Squares - Farmshare Austin: Farmshare Austin will host a Farm Raiser at the Austin Saengerrunde 1607 San Jacinto Blvd, Austin, Texas 78701. The event will feature square dancing (with lessons first!) and live music with BBQ from Tony Grasso and Moontower Coop, local vegan and vegetarian delights, and craft beverages. Proceeds will be used to support Farmshare's Indiegogo campaign which will help the Farmer Starter program launch this fall. Event is from 7:00 PM to 10:00 PM. Tickets are $30. Get yours today! Web site: http://farmshareaustin.org/farm-raiser/.
Austin - Pioneer Farms: Pioneer Farms has invited our dance group out to do a performance and participatory dance from 1-3 p.m. I hope lots of people are willing to come out and support their favorite dance organization. We want to build goodwill with Pioneer Farms so we can dance there in the future! Location: Pioneer Farms, 10621 Pioneer Farms Dr, Austin, Texas 78754. Web site: http://www.pioneerfarms.org/.
Austin - Mid-Winter Festival: Mostly music (a little dancing (squares, usually)), one-day event at the Dougherty Arts Center, 1110 Barton Springs Road. Web site: http://aftm.us.
Austin - Squares - First Friday Block Party: A square dance is one of the activities at this First Friday event sponsored by in.gridients. Event is from 6pm to 10pm and located at 2610 Manor Road, Austin, TX 78722. Web site: http://in.gredients.com.
Austin - Squares - Saengerrunde : Dances at the Austin Saengerrunde, 1607 San Jacinto Blvd, Austin, Texas 78701. Admission: $5. Dances are from 7pm to 10pm. Food and Drink: Available from Scholz Garten next door. All dances will be taught, no experience or partner required. All ages are welcome. For more info email firstname.lastname@example.org - Web site: https://www.facebook.com/AustinDare2Square.
Azle - Summer Breeze: Summer Breeze Family Dance in Azle from 7:00pm to 11:00pm at 404 Place, 404 W. Main Street, Azle, TX 76020. The cost is only $5 per person with a limit of $20 per family. Please also bring finger food and drinks to share. Hope to see many of you there. For more information call or text Jessica at 817-367-8891 or Angel at 817-715-6685. Dress: Semi-Formal. This is going to be a Contradance mixed with ballroom music. This dance is fun for the whole family. The caller teaches you the steps. Young children learn the dances with the help of the parents. Web site: https://www.facebook.com/FamilyDances.
Austin - Scandinavian: Austin Scandinavian Folk Dancers meet on the last Wednesday of the month in the Back Room of Hancock Recreation Center on 41st Street (between Red River and Duval). Other Wednesdays, they host jam sessions, open mics, song sessions, slow jams, and occasional tune teaching sessions. 7:30pm-9:45PM, FREE. Web site: http://www.visigral.com/austinscandi/.
Azle - Carol of the Bells:RSVP by December 14, 2014. Time: 7:00-10:00 P.M. (DOORS OPEN AT 6:30 P.M.). Location: 404 Main Place, 404 W. Main St. Azle, TX. Dress: Formal. We invite you and your family to join us for the Carol of the Bells Family Dance. This dance is fun for the whole family! To see pictures of previous dances and for the dress code, visit us on facebook: Bremer-Mason Sponsored Family Dances. We are asking for a $5 donation per person or $20 per family to cover the cost of the caller and the dance hall. If money is an issue, please don’t let that stop you from coming. Bring a drink and a platter with snacks to share. To RSVP, contact Jessica Bremer at 817-367-8891 or Angel Mason at 817-715-6685. Web site: https://www.facebook.com/FamilyDances.
Azle - Lessons: Dance lessons from 7pm to 8pm at 404 Place, 404 W. Main Street, Azle, TX 76020. The cost is only $5 per lesson. Please also bring finger food and drinks to share. Hope to see many of you there. Mix of contras, line dancing and ballroom. Web site: https://www.facebook.com/FamilyDances.
Azle: Family Dances in Azle from 7:00pm to 10:00pm at 404 Place, 404 W. Main Street, Azle, TX 76020. The cost is only $5 per person. Please also bring finger food and drinks to share. RSVP to Jessica Bremer at (817) 367-8891 or email@example.com - Web site: https://www.facebook.com/FamilyDances.
Blanco: Dance at The Old Blanco County Courthouse, U.S. 281, Blanco, Texas 78606. San Antonio Contra Dancers are sponsoring a dance at the Old Blanco County Courthouse. Time to be 8:00pm and the cost will be $9.00 for adults and $5.00 - 18 years and younger or with a student ID. Web site: None.
Blanco - Blue Barn: Barn dance and old time music at the Arnosky Farm Blue Barn. 6pm Potluck & 7pm Barn Dance. All dances will be taught & no previous experience needed). The Blue Barn is between Henley, Wimberley, and Blanco, @ 13977 RR 2325 Blanco, TX 78606. Web site: http://www.texascolor.com/texas_farmstand.html.
Bryan/College Station: Dances are held on the 1st Saturday of each month, from 7 to 10 pm, at Aldersgate Methodist Church, 2201 Earl Rudder (Bypass 6), College Station. Contra dance is suitable for pre-teens to seniors, age range 10 to 70+. All dances are taught. Smoke and alcohol free setting. You do not have to bring a partner. We have a caller to direct the dancers, and live music when possible. $5 donation ($3 for students), more graciously accepted. Special: FREE for first-time dancers, so bring your friends! Come promptly to get additional beginner's instruction in the first hour. Dress: casual, wear confortable shoes. For more information: call 979-846-4504, or e-mail: stan.2.swanson AT tamu DOT edu. Web site: http://www.bcscontra.org/.
Carmine - La Bahia Dance Hall: Special afternoon (2pm-5pm) at the Dance Hall, TX Route 237. The hall is on the right side of the road as you go a couple miles down TX 237. Pull in and park next to the hall. Admission: $10. Web site: None.
Carrollton: The North Texas Traditional Dance Society sponsors dances on the 1st Saturday of each month at the Plaza Arts Center, 1115 4th Avenue and on the 3rd Saturday of each month at the First United Lutheran Church, 6202 Mockingbird Lane. Admission for non-members is $10.00. Members and students fees will remain the same: $7.00 and $5.00. The maximum charge is $25 for a family with members, or $30 for a family with no members. The hall has a wonderful soft sprung wood floor, and the dances use live music. Beginners are encouraged (but not required) to come to a brief introductory lesson at 7:45 pm. The dance itself starts at 8:00pm and ends at 11:00pm. For all our dances, NO experience is needed. We walk through every dance before doing it to the music. NO partners are needed. We encourage everyone to change partners for every dance. For the latest schedule information, call our dance hotline: 214-357-8213. For more information, e-mail. Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Carrollton - Callers' Workshop: The North Texas Traditional Dance Society is sponsoring a three-day callers' workshop with Becky Hill in September 2008. Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Carrollton - Annual Pourparler Conference: The 2011 Pourparler Conference will be held at the Plaza Theater with support from National Folk Organization, New England Dancing Masters, Country Song & Dance Society (CDSS), and Shepherdstown Music & Dance (SMAD). Pourparler is a yearly gathering of dance and music educators from North America who are dedicated to teaching folk/ethnic/world/traditional dance in schools and/or community events. Register in advance. Web site: http://www.nfo-usa.org/.
Corpus Christi: Dances on various Saturday from 7:00pm to 10:00pm at 901 Brawner Parkway (Unity Church). For information call Sharon Purcell at (361) 882-8375 or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org. Web site: http://www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=120610187983203.
Dallas - When In Doubt, Swing: The North Texas Traditional Dance Society hosts this contra dance weekend in April. Register in advance for the best rates. Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Dallas: The North Texas Traditional Dance Society sponsors dances on every Saturday of the month (English on the 4th Saturday), unless there is a schedule change. Admission for non-members is $10.00. Members and students fees will remain the same: $7.00 and $5.00. The maximum charge is $25 for a family with members, or $30 for a family with no members. Beginners are encouraged (but not required) to come to a brief introductory lesson at 7:45 pm. The dance itself starts at 8:00pm and ends at 11:00pm. (Note: The Irving dance on the 2nd Saturday starts with a Potluck at 6 pm and the dance starts at 7:00 p.m.) For all our dances, NO experience is needed. We walk through every dance before doing it to the music. NO partners are needed. We encourage everyone to change partners for every dance. For the latest schedule information, call our dance hotline: 972-546-8858. (NEW NUMBER; deleted old one) For more information, e-mail. Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Dallas - Dance Planet: Annual (mid-April) weekend of dance workshops and performances in various styles including contra dancing at the Booker T. Washington High School for the Performing and Visual Arts, 2501 Flora Street. Web site: http://www.thedancecouncil.org/.
Dallas - Memorial dance for Hugh Morris: Mixed Folk, Contra, and Swing Dance in memory of Hugh Harris, from 6pm to 11pm at Sokol Hall, 7448 Greenville Avenue, Dallas, TX, 75382. Bring your dancing shoes, a salad or dessert (let me know which), and stories about Hugh to share. The food will be catered, so a head count is needed. The budget is limited, so please only attend if you actually knew Hugh. RSVP by Aug 26 to Holly via email email@example.com, with Subject "Hugh" (that means let Holly know you are coming, ahead of time). Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Dallas - Memorial dance for Jimmy Boyer: NTTDS will sponsor a special Memorial Dance to commemorate the life of our friend, Jimmy Boyer, who passed away on February 6, 2013.The dance will be held at the First United Lutheran Church and will start at 5:30 p.m. with a potluck. More details will follow. Glenn Manual is coordinating the development of a photo montage. If you have photos or videos of Jimmy please send them to Glenn at firstname.lastname@example.org - Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Driftwood - Austin String Band Festival: The festival is held in mid-October at Camp Ben McCullough in Driftwood, just outside Austin. While it is mostly a weekend of music, there is some dancing. Web site: http://aftm.us/.
East Austin - Squares: Dances at the White Horse, 500 Comal, East Austin from 7pm to 9pm. No experience needed. All dances taught. Web site: http://www.thewhitehorseaustin.com/.
Fort Worth: There are dances from 7-10 pm on 4th Saturdays at the Dance Connection Studio at 5519 S. Hulen, Fort Worth, TX 76104. Price for all dances $9. per person at the door, $7. per person for NTTDS members, $5. for college and high school students, $3. for elementary school students. No family pays more than $20. NO partners are needed. We encourage everyone to change partners for every dance. For more information contact Ellie Hayes at 817-807-3677 or email@example.com or Meet-up Group: www.meetup.com/Fort-Worth-Contra-Dancing/ - Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Houston: The Houston Area Traditional Dance Society sponsors contra dances on the 2nd and 4th Saturdays of each month at St. Andrews Episcopal Church, 1819 Heights Blvd. from 7:30pm to 10:30pm with an introductory session at 7:15pm. Current costs are: Members $6, non-members $10, younger than 18 free. Live music always! No partners or experience necessary! Every dance is taught and called. For more information, e-mail the board. Web site: http://www.hatds.org.
Houston - Bayou Bedlam: The Houston Area Traditional Dance Society hosts the annual Bayou Bedlam dance weekend in February. Includes contras, English, music and some singing. Register in advance. Web site: http://www.hatds.org/bayoubedlam/index.html.
Houston - Holiday Ball: The Houston Area Traditional Dance Society hosts this annual event in early December. The Ball is longer than a regular dance, starting at 7:30 and ending at 11:30. We take two breaks so that we have more time to visit. It is truly a festive event! The hall is decorated, and there is more food, more people, and more time to socialize than any dance other than Bayou Bedlam and Swamp Stomp. We encourage everyone to dress up for the Holiday Ball. "Dress up" just means wearing something nicer than you would at a regular dance, or adding a festive garnish to your outfit. Some people wear formal attire, but most do something simple. It really adds to the festive feel of the evening when a lot of people dress up! The food at the Ball is always wonderful, thanks to the many people who bring something special to share. We hope that you will be one of them this year! Web site: http://www.hatds.org/html_pages/HolidayBall.html.
Houston - Swamp Stomp: The Houston Area Traditional Dance Society sponsors this annual event which features afternoon and evening dances and a potluck dinner. Afternoon Session - 2 pm to 5 pm; Pot Luck Dinner - 5:15 pm to 7:15 pm; Evening Session - 8 pm to 11 pm. $20 for both afternoon & evening attendance $15 for either session separately. For Students (16-25 years of age): $15 for both sessions and $10 for one session. Dancers younger than 16 are free! Check the web site for the location of this event. Web site: http://www.hatds.org/html_pages/SwampStomp.html.
Houston - Mike Head's Going Away Party: A celebration of Mike's life held at the new home that he and Alice were building together. All who knew Mike are welcome to attend. Event is from 4pm to 7pm. Location: 921 Judiway, Houston 77018. Web site: http://www.hatds.org.
Houston - Workshops for Callers and Organizers: Daytime workshops before the Holiday Ball on a number of topics. Location: Knights of Columbus, 607 East Whitney Street, Houston, TX 77022 from 10am to 4:30pm. Includes lunch. See site for details. Web site: http://hatds.org/solstice-stars.html.
Huntsville: Dances on 4th Saturdays at Location: Huntsville Dance Connection, 912 11th Street, between Mr. Hamburger and Lindo Mexico, 7:30 pm to 9:30 pm. Contact: Dana Nicolay, 936-581-3657. $10. Web site: http://www.nicolaydanceworks.com/contradance.php.
Irving: The North Texas Traditional Dance Society sponsors dances on the 2nd Saturday most months, usually at the Garden and Arts Center, 906 South Senter Road, Irving, TX 75061. Admission for non-members is $10.00. Members and students fees will remain the same: $7.00 and $5.00. Admission during the second half of the dance is $4 for non-members and $3 for members. The dance itself starts at 7:00pm and ends at 10:00pm. For all our dances, NO experience is needed. We walk through every dance before doing it to the music. NO partners are needed. We encourage everyone to change partners for every dance. For the latest schedule information, call our dance hotline: 972-546-8858. For more information, e-mail. Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Irving - University of Dallas: Some students at the University of Dallas who visited the regular NTTDS dance in Irving are starting a contra dance on the University of Dallas campus. The dance is FREE, but they might have a Tip Jar for the Band and Caller. We would love to help and support them. University of Dallas is located at 1845 East Northgate Drive in Irving (Hwy 114 at Tom Braniff Drive). The dance will be held in Haggar University Center, near the Tower. Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Kennard - Old Mill Festival: Join us in the heart of the Davy Crockett National Forest for the first annual Old Mill Music Festival. Come and see some of the best in the business at this all acoustic two day event. Includes square dancing. Held in early November. Web site: http://millfestmusic.com/.
Kerrville - Squares: As part of the Easter Hill Country Tour, we are delighted to be able to offer a traditional square dance after the dinner at the Y.O. Ranch Hotel (2033 Sidney Baker, Kerrville, Texas 78028, (830-257-4440). We expect the dance to be 7:30 - 10:30 pm and the on-site cost (dance only) is $10. More details here www.facebook.com/AustinDare2Square. Web site: http://www.ehct.com/squaredance.php.
Lubbock - Gatsby's Coffeehouse: Dance at Gatsby's Coffeehouse (2610 Salem Ave), Lubbock, Texas 79410 from 7pm to 9pm sponsored by the Roots Music Institute, the TTU Vernacular Music Center, and the Hub City Folk Arts Association. Free and fun social dancing, all ages and levels of experience welcome. Web site: None.
McKinney: The North Texas Traditional Dance Society holds a dance at the Heard Museum, 1 Nature Place in McKinney. Web site: http://www.nttds.org.
Nacogdoches: Millard's Crossing Candlelight Christmas Contra Dance is part of a series of events in early December. Web site: http://www.millardscrossing.org/old-fashioned-christmas.html.
Richardson - Waltz: New waltz series. Lori Hayner is organizing a 2-month Waltz Series to be held Wednesday nights at W.W. Fairfields in Richardson, NW corner of Beltline & Plano Road, next to Albertsons. Classes go from Basics to Patterns. The series begins January 5th and will run from 7:00pm to 8:30 pm. Classes are $15 and will include a drink ticket. Contact: Lorihayner@sbcglobal.net Web site: None.
San Antonio: The San Antonio Contra Dancers sponsor dances on 2nd Saturdays at the International Folk Culture Center, 411 SW 24th St. S.A. 78207. Live music is played at every dance. Admission is $6.00 per person. All dances are smoke and alcohol free. Bring snacks if you can! Introductory walk-through is at 7:15 pm and the dance is 7:30 to 10:30 pm. Web site: http://www.sacontra.org/.
San Marcos - 4th Sunday: Dance at the United Campus Ministry Wesley Bldg, 510 N. Guadalupe Street, San Marcos, TX 78666-5712. Unless otherwise noted on their website (please do check first), events are 2:00pm to 5:00pm with beginners' session at 1:30pm. Reg. Admission $9; student admission $5; TAADA members, $8.No partner necessary!! Beginners welcome!. Info: firstname.lastname@example.org - Web site: http://sites.google.com/site/smcdtx/.
San Marcos - New Year's Eve: Dance at the United Campus Ministry Wesley Building, 510 N Guadalupe, San Marcos, TX 78666. Potluck Meal starting @ 6:30pm. Dance is 8pm to Midnight. Snacks welcome. Cost is $9. Be sure to check the web site soon as more details are confirmed! Web site: http://www.taada.us/.
This page is part of the Contrdancelinks.com web site. For more information about contra dancing, visit these other site pages:
*The Colorado link will bring you to Dancing on the Web. The Iowa link will bring you to the Central Iowa Barn Dance Association. The Maine link will bring you to the Downeast Friends of the Folk Arts. The New Mexico link will bring you to the New Mexico Folk Music and Dance Society. The Utah link will bring you to Utah Contradance Information. These fine organizations and individuals already have complete listings for these states and there is no reason for me to duplicate their efforts.
**As far as I know, there are no regular dances or events in Mississippi, South Dakota or Wyoming, but I have created pages if something changes in the future.